The formation of a grape bush on a high stem
The best option for the formation of a grape bush is its formation on the stem. This form allows you to give the greatest load on the plant, and therefore, to take the greatest yield. It provides better warming of the vine, good ventilation, which makes the bushes less sick, and is also considered the most convenient to care for. However, grape formation on the stem is suitable only for those areas where the temperature indicators of frost do not exceed minus 17 ° C, and for individual frost-resistant varieties - minus 28 ° C.
Most often, according to this principle, such well-known varieties are formed as "Liana", "Isabella", "Moldova", "Flower", "Stepnyak", "Lidia", "Golden resistant", etc., grown not only in non-covering territories , but also in many areas of sheltering viticulture.
The only drawbacks of this method are the need for more serious support and some delay in the ripening of the crop, especially in conditions of insufficient heat. However, an increase in harvesting by 30-40% and the simplification of agricultural practices used during the growing season on the culture more than cover these disadvantages.
Stamb - part of the stem above the soil surface, having perennial wood, bearing “sleeves”.
Head - part of the stem at its very top, from which the shoulders (sleeves) develop.
Sleeves (shoulders) - perennial shoots extending from the head.
Fruiting Vine - branches on which new shoots grow during the season and grapes are formed.
Substitution knot - part of the vine (after trimming by 2-4 eyes), on which two vines will be formed this year, which will be cut into a fruit pair.
Fruit pair (fruit link) - knot of substitution and fruiting vine.
Stepson - second-order shoot formed on an annual vine during the summer.
Methods of forming the stem
In practice, several methods of forming a high stem are used - slow and fast.
Slow Formation Method
Slow takes several years and is built on the systematic build-up of wood. With its use, the shtamb and sleeves are thickened, have uniform distribution in space. This method is suitable for varieties of different growth forces and is used in all zones. Its disadvantage is the later entry into bearing and the abundance of wounds.
The accelerated method is based on the formation of a bush from the only well-developed vine, which is cut at a height of up to 1.5 m, bent at the desired height of the stem and the curved part is attached to a horizontal trellis. The second sleeve is grown from the upper kidney of the stem, tying in the opposite direction. The advantage of this method is the next year's crop. The downside is the possibility of using it on varieties with strong growth, in conditions of good nutrition and watering, as well as thin perennial wood.
Depending on the height of the stem, the shape of the grape bush may be low stamp (shtamb to 40 cm), mid-standard (40-80 cm) or high standard (above 80 cm).
High stem grape bush formation
High stamb is more often used in the south, in places where grapes do not need shelter for the winter. Thanks to this formation, the fruit buds on the vine are laid closer to the base of the shoots, which increases the average mass of clusters formed by the plant, and, consequently, gives an increase in yield.
Due to the accumulation of perennial wood, the average annual yield is significantly stabilized, and the winter hardiness of plants increases. In these bushes, polarity is less manifested, shorter internodes are formed, the diameter of the vine increases.
The main condition for choosing a high-stem grape formation is a strong or medium growth potential of the variety; the choice for planting a well-developed seedling in pre-prepared fertile soil with regular watering.
In the spring, the overwintered shoot is cut to 2-3 buds above the ground. In the summer, leave two strong, well-developed shoots, break out the excess. A support is installed near the bush, with a height of about 1.5 m. As the growth grows, the shoots are tied up. (fig. 3)
The best shoot is immediately determined - it will go to the formation of the stem. Stepsons are removed from it. The second escape remains for the reserve in case the first one is lost for some reason. In addition, it contributes to the plant building the root mass so necessary for its full development.
By autumn it is necessary to build a trellis: the first tier of wire at a height of 100-120 cm, the second 130-150 cm - it should consist of 2 parallel wires, green shoots will grow in them.
In the spring, before the sap flow begins, the main shoot is shortened to the selected height of the stem. Everything else is deleted. (Fig. 4 / a)
After waking up the bush, the formation of the sleeves begins. At the same time, two shoots growing from the upper buds are left on the stem for development, the rest are removed. When the vines reach the required length (half of the distance left in the row between the plants), they are pinched and tied to the first tier of wire.
As the stepsons are formed, the bush is further formed: the first stepson is left at a distance of 10 cm from the beginning of the sleeve, the next after 20 cm, all of which should be located on the upper side of the sleeve. (Fig. 4 / b)
If the growth of grapes in the second year was distinguished by significant strength, then good stepsons formed on the sleeves, suitable for the formation of horns (fruit links will be located on the horns). If not, stepsons are formed during this growing season.
For the formation of horns, each of the shoots is cut into two buds, and by the fall two new shoots will grow from them. All shoots must be tied to the second order of the trellis to avoid twisting the shoulder. (Fig. 5)
Now a fruit pair is forming: a fruit vine and a knot of substitution. (Fig. 6) The first, depending on the variety, can be cut into 5-6, 6-8, 8-10 buds, the second into two.
Further, the annual formation is carried out according to this principle - the principle of a fruit pair or (second name) fruit link.
Important! During the formation of the grape bush, it is necessary to adhere to high quality pruning. To create a trunk and shoulders, use well-developed shoots with a length of at least 1.5 m, with a diameter of 6-7 mm. Try to apply as few unnecessary wounds as possible during the summer removal of growth.
If there is a risk of freezing of the vineyard, in the second year the backup sleeve can not be removed, but placed on an additional trellis stretched at a height of 60 cm from the ground. In this case, two extreme stepsons are left on it, and in the fall they are sheltered for wintering.
In the spring of the third year, stepsons are shortened by 3-4 eyes. Shelter again in the fall. In the spring of the fourth year, shoots are cut into 5-6 eyes, and at the base of the bush one shoot is left for growth. In autumn, stepchildren grown from their left eyes are shortened by 10-12 kidneys.
In the next spring, 2-3 buds are left on the shoots, and 2 knots on the sleeve. If the boom was damaged in winter by frost, it is cut off, a backup sleeve is placed in its place and shoulders are formed. A reserve sleeve is formed from a shoot.
The formation of the grape bush "hanging cordon"
The formation of “hanging cordon” also implies the formation of a high stem. Usually it is 1.5–1.6 m. However, the distinguishing feature is not only its height, but also the formation of the sleeves. Usually these are two shoulders (maybe one) located on a single-tier trellis with fruit links formed on the sides. (Fig. 7)
With such a bush formation, the fruit vine is not tied to a wire - it is left to hang freely. But they firmly fix the shtamb, tying it to an individual post. On the wires have shoulders.
The advantage of this type of formation is in increasing the space of the crown, which contributes to a more complete disclosure of the potential of the culture, improving the light and radiation regime of plants, and, consequently, increasing productivity.
Other types of vine grape formation
In this article, only two of the most common methods of forming a grape bush on a high stem are examined in detail. But in reality there are much more.
This category also includes two-standard Moldavian uniform, and vertical and reverse cordon, and high-standard four-shoulder cordon, and beam and cup shape. Each of them is worthy of attention, but more often they are used by experienced growers.