Hazel grouse - planting, growing and care
The Latin name of the hazel grouse - Fritillaria comes from the "chessboard", and is given for the colorful coloring of the flowers of some species resembling this subject. According to another version - from the Latin fritillus, which means a goblet or vessel for dice, and is associated not with color, but with the shape of the flower. The plant received the Russian name "hazel grouse" for the similarity of flowers strewn with colorful dots with feathers of a forest bird of the grouse family. In this article we will tell you how to grow hazel grouse in the garden - about planting, breeding and care.
- Botanical description of the plant
- Grouse planting rules
- Grouse cultivation and care
- Grouse breeding
- Pests and grouse diseases
Botanical description of the plant
Grouse - perennial plants, overwintering and partly reproducing through underground bulbs. The bulb consists of several (2-4-6 or more) fleshy scales, mutually fused; some of the scales carry kidneys in their bosom, developing into new bulbs. An onion stem grows from a bulb with more or less numerous, oblong-lanceolate or narrowly linear leaves located scattered or whorled along the stem.
Large drooping flowers of hazel grouse appear one or several (with an umbrella, a panicle) on the top of the stem. Perianth is simple, bright in color (yellow, red, white, violet), often spotted, six-petalled, bell-shaped or cubar-like, falling off; elongated or almost round, all almost identical tepals either converge with their tops, or stick out to the sides. At the base of each leaf there is a honey hole (nectary) in the form of a triangular, oval or round recess, often bulging outward, why the lobe is bent at right angles, and the flower is cubar or cylindrical. There are six stamens; anthers are attached to the threads by a base. Pestle with a filiform, whole or tripartite (stigmas) column and with a three-rooted polyspermous ovary.
The fruit of the hazel grouse is a six-sided capsule, three-nosed, winged or wingless, with numerous flat seeds.
Grouse planting rules
A feature of the hazel grouse is the presence of juicy, unprotected scales. Any damage to the scales (creases, cuts, dark brown spots of rot), as well as improper storage conditions of the bulbs that cause them to dry out (bulbs become soft and flabby) or the appearance of mold on the bulbs can cause their death. The likelihood of death increases significantly with improper planting of bulbs, when excessive moisture in the cold soil causes them to rot.
Grouse bulbs are best planted in an elevated place where there is no stagnation of water. If there is a danger of overmoistening the soil at the grouse planting site of your choice, make an artificial mound on it. Fill with coarse-grained sand the bottom of a wide landing hole, the depth of which is determined by the size of the bulb and the height of the plant (large bulbs of stunted hazel grouse are planted to a depth of about 12 cm, tall ones - about 20 cm).
A place for grouse is chosen sunny or in light partial shade. The soil should be rich and well-drained. If you deepen the bulbs or plant them in moist, low-lying places, then there will be no seedlings. Handle the bulb, consisting of fleshy scales, you need to carefully and carefully.
Coarse river sand is poured into the bottom of the hole prepared for the hazel grouse. Fine quarry sand is not suitable, it negatively affects the bulbs, young roots rot in it. Also, in order to avoid rotting the bulbs in the hole, it is better to lay on the barrel.
The depth of planting of hazel grouse is calculated, as for all bulbs - it should triple the height of the bulb. After laying the onion, sand and organic fertilizers are added to the hole, the best prepared flower soil, clean or mixed with the soil.
Before planting, it is advisable to disinfect the hazel grouse bulbs (for example, with a potassium permanganate solution) and then powder with powdered charcoal.
If it is not possible to plant hazel grouse bulbs immediately after purchase, protect them from drying out - place sphagnum in slightly moist peat or live moss and put it in the fruit compartment of the refrigerator. Grouse usually planted in the garden in September and October. Forced later planting of bulbs requires mulching the planting site and sheltering it with leaves for the winter.
Grouse cultivation and care
There is an opinion that the hazel grouse is an unpretentious plant. This is not entirely true. First of all, it is important to comply with the rules of landing.
Grouse bulbs are planted only in the fall - from mid-August to early September. Cannot be planted later: the plants will not grow properly, and may not bloom next year.
Grouse is watered, like all bulbs, remembering that the bulbs of faded plants should not be in dry soil, they need watering 1-2 times a month.
Look after hazel grouse in the same way as for lilies. They feed twice with dry fertilizers.
- Grouse is fed for the first time in the third decade of April: they take 1 tbsp. Of humus in a bucket. spoon "Agricola" for flowering plants "and nitrophosphate, sprinkle 3-5 kg per 1 square. m. a layer of 3-5 cm.
- The second time fed grouse after flowering: 1 square. scattered on 1 st. spoon of superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
It is possible to add wood ash under the plants during flowering of hazel grouse. It is scattered around, and after that the plant is mulched with peat or humus (layer up to 3 cm).
Hazel grouse begins to bloom in the second half of May, flowering is short - up to 18-20 days.
Faded grouse for some time still pleasing to the eye thanks to its beautiful leaves, but by the first decade of July the plant loses its decorativeness and all its ground part needs to be cut off. In order not to forget where the hazel grouse grows and not to accidentally dig up the soil in this place, it should be noted somehow.
This plant propagates by seeds and vegetatively. Such a sequence is not random. The fact is that the seed method is universal and suitable for all species, only at least two flowering plants of the same species are needed.
Grouse seed propagation
After pollination (using insects or artificial), a seed box is formed, which, as it ripens, takes a vertical position. The stem of the hazel grouse lengthens and gains strength. Seeds can be collected after the walls of the capsule have dried. Sometimes, in very rainy years, it is advisable to break off the box earlier, when its walls begin to lighten, and ripen in a dry, ventilated place.
The seeds of most hazel grouse are resistant to fungal diseases. They are recommended to be sown immediately after harvesting on a site with well-prepared, rich in organic soil, because seedlings will grow here for several years and they need to be provided with food for all these years.
Inorganic fertilizers are applied in the form of annual top dressing at key points in the development of plants: at the beginning of growth, during the formation of the bulb. Grouse seeds are sown on ridges raised for better drainage into grooves 6-10 cm wide, with row spacing of about the same size. The embedment depth is 1 cm. To make the furrow bottom even, use a rectangular rigid plate with smooth edges, which is carried out along the guide board.
Immediately after sowing, the surface of the ridge is mulched with peat with a layer of 2 cm. Shoots appear in the spring of next year and are the only leaf several centimeters high. Grouse germination varies greatly, depending on the species, and even in one species in different years.
This is mainly due to weather conditions under which seed ripening occurred. Grouse seedlings are usually more than adult plants, resistant to freezing in the winter and in general to many unfavorable factors.
Perhaps the main problem in our climate zone is the protection of grouse seedlings, people from areas with dry summers, from soil moisture in the summer. Already two-year-old plants should be dug up after the completion of the growing season and stored in a dry place in the summer. This is a rather scrupulous job, because the bulbs are still very small and some of them, as a rule, are lost.
Grouse species that are more tolerant to wet summers can be grown in one place for up to 4 years (the beginning of flowering of individual specimens) without any losses, after which they must be planted. If there are few seeds, it is convenient to sow them in plates with trellised walls and a bottom that do not interfere with the free development of the root system. They are buried in the soil flush with the surface of the ridge. This facilitates the digging of small bulbs, which are removed along with the bowl. The protection of the bulbs from excess moisture in the summer, if necessary, is also simplified. The bowl is removed along with the soil and placed in a place protected from the rain, and in the autumn they are dug in place.
Grouse propagation by bulbs
The second most important method of breeding hazel grouse is vegetative. One maternal onion can form several substitutes. In most species, a substitute bulb of a larger size and many small babies are formed in one annual cycle. As a rule, it is round, but in some species it is stolonoid or some other shape. It has to be grown until flowering for several years.
When digging, the baby easily separates from the mother's bulb, and it is not possible to collect all of it. The one that remained in the ground will rise next year. Therefore, in this place for the next year, it is better not to plant other species of hazel grouse, otherwise in a few years you can get an indistinguishable mixture of several species.
Periodic digging of hazel grouse once every two years is good because the baby of the first year grows up and it is easier to dig out. Species of the Liliarhyza group are easy to propagate by exfoliating in the maternal bulbs part of the peripheral scales that give rise to young plants.
You can divide grouse bulbs artificially. This method is resorted to when the natural path is difficult. The easiest option is to break the onion, which consists of two scales. After this, the dividers must be dried so that the wound surfaces heal. Such divided scales are planted earlier than whole bulbs, because their resistance to drying is lower.
Large grouse bulbs from the subgenus Pelitium, Theresia, Korolkowia are cut into several parts or deeply incised in the meridional direction. This should be done no later than three weeks after excavation. Before planting, cut or notched bulbs should be stored in a dry room. It is advisable to sprinkle the places of incisions with crushed coal or treat with any fungicide.
Pests and grouse diseases
Hazel grouse is resistant to disease, and proper agricultural technology corresponding to the biology of each group makes the use of pesticides unnecessary. The most effective preventive method is crop rotation - periodically changing the plot on which other crops were previously grown (ideally, if it is not bulbous, but representatives of other genera are also acceptable).
If part of the bulb is affected by rot, then sometimes the plant can be saved by cutting the affected area to healthy tissue, and treating the cut with a fungicide. Most hazel grouse are resistant to botritis and do not suffer from incurable viral diseases - a real scourge of other decorative bulbous plants.
This original flower is increasingly found in garden areas. Even among the huge variety of garden flowers, it stands out with its unusual appearance, it seems exotic. Our gardeners especially like the hazel grouse imperial and grouse chess. Are you growing?