Eggplant - cultivation and varieties
It turns out that eggplant is perennial, and we grow it as an annual. Eggplant fruit can be a berry of various colors and shapes. And not just the blue cylinder: pear-shaped, spherical, serpentine with white or greenish dense pulp, without bitterness. The skin color of the fruit varies from dark brown with a reddish tint, brown with a grayish tint to yellow or grayish green.
The exotic nature of the vegetable is explained by the fact that it comes from India. In Latin, its name literally means "nightshade with an apple." The nightshade of the ancient Romans was considered a gift from the sun god - Salt - (cantilever, sunflower). The ancient Greeks considered eggplant a poisonous plant and called it the “apple of insanity,” believing that the one who ate it would lose its mind ... And now we know that eggplant is ... incredibly tasty!
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) - a species of perennial herbaceous plants of the genus Paslen, vegetable culture. It is also known by the name of badrijan (rarely bubridjan), and in the southern regions of Russia eggplants are called blue.
We place eggplants after the best predecessors, they are melons, cabbage, onions, root crops. We return the eggplants to their original place no earlier than in 2-3 years. If you keep them in the same place forever, plants suffer from fungal and viral diseases. We plant in an open, well-lit place.
After harvesting the previous culture, we immediately clear the soil of plant residues, fill with humus at the rate of 80-100 kg, superphosphate - 400-450 g, potassium salt - 100-150 g per 10 m².
We dig the site to a depth of 25-28 cm from the fall. In early spring, as soon as the soil dries, we carry out harrowing. Already in April, we introduce nitrogen fertilizer (urea) in a dose of 300 g per 10 m² with incorporation to a depth of 6-8 cm.
Practice shows that sowing with large sorted seeds increases productivity. How to sort the seeds? To do this, pour 5 liters of water in a bucket, put 60 g of table salt there. When the salt has dissolved, we fall asleep the seeds, then stir them for 1-2 minutes, after which we uphold 3-5 minutes. Then pop up the seeds with the solution and discard the remaining ones with clean water five to six times. After washing, large, full-weighted seeds are laid out on a canvas and dried.
Before sowing, it is desirable to determine the germination of seeds. For this purpose, we place 50 or 100 pieces of seeds on a small plate covered with filter paper, slightly moisten the paper and place it on a windowsill in a heated room. When the seeds bite (after 5-7 days), we calculate the germination percentage. This helps to avoid sparse seedlings.
Eggplant gardeners are grown mainly through seedlings. It is obtained in greenhouses with a layer of manure 50-60 cm. Sowing seeds in greenhouses is carried out in early March, that is, 55-60 days before transplanting seedlings to a permanent place. Before sowing, the wooden parts of the greenhouse are treated with a 10% solution of bleach or a thick solution of freshly slaked lime.
Composition of the soil: turf land mixed with humus in a ratio of 2: 1. Greenhouse soil is poured over manure with a layer of 15-16 cm. Before sowing, the soil is flavored with superphosphate at the rate of 250 g per one greenhouse frame (1.5 m²). Under the frame, 8-10 g of seeds are sown with a seeding to a depth of 1-2 cm. For a plot of 10 m², it is enough to grow 100 seedlings. The temperature regime during the period of seed germination is maintained within the range of 25-30 ° C. With the advent of seedlings, the temperature during the first 6 days is reduced to 14-16 ° C. Then the temperature is regulated: during the day support 16-26 ° C at night 10-14 ° C.
Gardeners know that the root system of eggplant is difficult to recover and, torn during transplantation, lags in growth. Therefore, it is better to grow seedlings in humus-earthen pots. For pots, a nutrient mixture is prepared from 8 parts of humus, 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of mullein with the addition of about 10 g of urea, 40-50 g of superphosphate and 4-5 g of potassium salt per bucket. The size of the pots is 6x6 cm.
8-4 days before sowing, the pots are tightly installed in a warm greenhouse with a soil thickness of 5-6 cm. If the pots are dry, they are moistened and 8-4 seeds are put in each. Top seeds sprinkled with earth with a layer of 1-2 cm.
Watering the seedlings in greenhouses as needed, usually this is done in the morning and at the same time airing the greenhouse. In cloudy cold weather you can not water.
Seedlings need additional nutrition. To do this, 50 g of superphosphate, 20 ammonium sulfate and 16 g of potassium salt are taken in a bucket of water. From organic top dressing, mullein, bird droppings or slurry are used. Bird droppings and mullein are first fermented in a tub (6-8 days). The fermented liquid is diluted with water: a solution of bird droppings 15-20 times (for young plants in the phase of the first real leaf) or 10-15 times (for seedlings with 4-5 leaves). Mullein solution is diluted with water in 3-5, and slurry 2-3 times.
Organic and mineral dressings alternate. The first top dressing (with organic fertilizers) is carried out 10-15 days after emergence, the second - 10 days after the first top dressing with mineral fertilizers. After top dressing, the seedlings are slightly watered with clean water to wash off droplets of the solution from it.
10-15 days before planting, seedlings are hardened: watering is reduced, the frame is removed (first only for a day, and then depending on the air temperature for a whole day). 5-10 days before planting in a permanent place, the plants are sprayed with a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate (50 g per 10 l of water) to protect the plants from fungal diseases.
Eggplant seedlings at the time of planting on a permanent place should have 5-6 true leaves, a thick stem and a well-developed root system.
On the eve of planting, seedlings in the greenhouse are abundantly watered. They begin to plant seedlings when the probability of frost disappears, that is, at the end of the first or at the beginning of the second decade of May (for the Crimea). Delay in planting seedlings even for 7-10 days leads to a decrease in yield.
Seedlings grown without pots are selected, keeping a lump of land. Planted at a depth of 7-8 cm, 1.5 cm deeper than the root neck. Aisles leave 60-70 cm, the intervals between plants in a row of 20-25 cm. If the lump of earth on the roots is fragile, then when sampling seedlings, the roots are immersed in a mullein from mullein with clay. Note again: potted seedlings take root more quickly, give a higher yield, and they take it 20-25 days earlier.
We plant eggplant seedlings in moist soil in cloudy weather or in the afternoon. So the plants take root better. We squeeze the earth near the roots and immediately water it. After 3-4 days, in the place of the seedlings that have fallen, we plant a new one and carry out a second watering (200 l, the norms of watering and top dressing are given for 10 m²).
The total number of irrigation during the summer is 9-10, in 7-9 days. After each watering, we loosen the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm, at the same time weeds are removed. The first feeding is carried out 15-20 days after transplanting seedlings (urea 100-150 g). We give the second dressing three weeks after the first (a solution of superphosphate 150 g and urea 100 g). Fill the fertilizer with a hoe to a depth of 8-10 cm and immediately water it. At the beginning of fruiting, feeding with fresh mullein (6-8 kg) along with irrigation water is effective. After 15-20 days, top dressing with fresh mullein can be repeated.
Eggplant plants may be attacked by a Colorado potato beetle. Against this malicious pest, we use a solution of chlorophos of 0.3% concentration (30 g of the drug per 10 liters of water). The signal of use is the hatching of beetle larvae.
Varieties of eggplant
The best varieties of eggplant: Delicacy, Gribovsky-752, Dwarf early-921, Donskoy, Long violet, Bulgarian. Dark purple skin color is present in the eastern group of early varieties (varieties: Delicacy, Dwarf early, Oriental).
In the western group of varieties, the shape of the fruit is flattened, spherical, oval, ovoid, shortened pear-shaped, cylindrical (varieties: Crimean, Donskoy).
For growing under a film in the middle lane, early-ripening early varieties are used: Delicates 163, Dwarf early 6, and others. Of the middle-ripening and fruitful crops, Universal 6, Simferopolsky 105, etc. are suitable.
The best time for cleaning is dry, cool weather until the first frost. Even slight frost damage makes eggplants unusable.
- High-yielding mid-season. The period from seedlings to harvest 115-130 days. The plant is compact, 40-60 cm high. The fruits are shortened, pear-shaped, weighing 300-450 g, with dense white flesh without bitterness. Color in technical ripeness is blue-violet, in biological ripeness is brown-brown. Shelving and portability are excellent. Universal use.
- Attractive fruits in deep purple. The period from seedlings to the harvest of the first crop is 120-130 days. The bush is semi-spreading, 85-90 cm high in open ground. The fruits are cylindrical in shape, 20-25 cm long. The fruit retains commercial qualities for a long time.
- Early ripe hybrid eggplant selection "Gavrish". Plants are vigorous. The flowers are single, with a diameter of about 5 cm. The fruit weighing 250-300 g, oval, dark purple. The pulp of medium density is white with a green tint, without bitterness. The hybrid is well adapted for cultivation in sheltered soil.
- A very early grade of eggplant for growing in film greenhouses and open ground. Plants 1.8 m high. A large number of fruits.
- Early ripe (110-115 days.) Eggplant variety of selection "VNIISSOK". Productivity in the film greenhouse is 5-7 kg / m. The plant is a semi-determinant type, stems with anthocyanin color. The fruit is pear-shaped or shortened-pear-shaped, purple in color, weighing 200 g. The thorns are weak.
- A very early grade of eggplant. The plant is fast growing, compact with short internodes, 40-55 cm high. The fruits are long glossy, weighing 200-300 g.
- Early ripe (100-120 days.) Eggplant variety selection Manul for glazed and film greenhouses. Plants are medium-sized. Fruits are dark purple in size 35-45x5-6 cm, weighing 300-400 g
- Hybrid eggplant breeding "Gavrish" with a maturity of 110-115 days. For all types of protected ground structures. The plant is medium-sized, in glazed greenhouses 270-330 cm, in film greenhouses 70-80 cm. Fruits are dark purple, elongated (18-25 cm), weighing 250-309 g, without voids. The pulp is white, dense, without bitterness, with a small amount of seeds and high palatability. Zoned in 1998 in the Central, Central Black Earth and Ural regions. Productivity 14.7 kg / m
- Ultra-ripe eggplant variety with elongated cylindrical fruits, ink-purple in color and weighing 200-225 g.
- Mid-early (120-130 days) eggplant hybrid for glazed and heated film greenhouses for selection of Manul. The fruits are densely purple in color of a saber shape, measuring 21-28 x 7-10 cm and weighing 300-500 g.
Handsome black man
- Early ripe (78 days) Danish eggplant variety. The plant is 50-60 cm high. The fruits are beautiful, solid, of regular cylindrical shape, weighing 200-250 g.
- Sredneranny productive, unpretentious grade of eggplant. Fruits of a rounded shape with a diameter of 15-20 cm. Well knots fruits at a low temperature.
- Mid-season (109-149 days), eggplant variety of the Donetsk OBS selection, the plant is compact, 46-56 cm high. The fruits are cylindrical, dark violet 14-18 cm long, weighing 100-165 g. The pulp is green, dense, without bitterness. Productivity is up to 8 kg. The variety is appreciated for friendly ripening and compact arrangement of fruits in the lower part of the plant.
- Early ripening, technical ripeness occurs on 95-115 days after full germination. The plant is closed, of medium height. The leaf is medium-sized, green, notched, smooth, without thorns. Calyx slightly prickly. The fruit is of medium length, pear-shaped glossy, dark purple in technical ripeness. The pulp is white without bitterness. The mass of the fruit is 240-280 g.
- Early high-yielding eggplant. Fruits are violet-black, weighing 700-900 g with a delicate and tasty pulp. The variety has good fruit setting in unfavorable conditions. It gives an excellent harvest in film shelters, even in an area with a short summer season.
- An early variety of eggplant breeding "Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture". The period from seedlings to the first harvest 115-119 days. The plant is spreading, 45-70 cm high. The fruits are dark violet, shiny, in shape - pear-shaped and straight, weighing 165-185 g. The flesh is whitish-green, dense without bitterness. Resistant to verticillosis and spider mites. Designed for canning and cooking. Zoned in Moldova.
- Mid-early (120-130 days) eggplant variety for all types of greenhouses of selection Manul. Fruits of lilac-white color with a pointed end, size 40-45 x 6-6.5 cm and weight 300-450 g.
- The plant is 170-190 cm high, semi-spreading, medium-leafy, slightly prickly. The leaf is large, green, the edge of the leaf is flat, without spikes. The fruit is 25-30 cm long, cylindrical, glossy, technically ripe purple. The pulp is white, dense without bitterness.
- Hybrid eggplant Dutch selection. Zoned in 1998 in the Central, Central Black Earth and Ural regions for winter-spring and extended revolutions of winter greenhouses. Technical ripeness occurs on 91 days after full germination. The plant is compact, 1.6-1.8 m high. The fruit is elongated pear-shaped, slightly curved, dark purple, weighing 300-400 g.
- Early ripening, high-yielding, unpretentious eggplant variety. The fruit is black-violet, 20-30 cm, diameter 5-8 cm, weight 150-200 g. The pulp is tender, without bitterness.
- Mid-season (130-140 days) eggplant variety selection Manul for all types of greenhouses. Plants are medium-sized. The fruits are rounded, 12x14 cm in size, weighing 600-700 g of a deep purple color.
- Early ripening eggplant variety of the “West Siberian Vegetable Experimental Station”. The period from seedlings to technical ripeness 112-139 days. The bush is low, compact, standard. The fruit is elongated pear-shaped, weighing 130 g, without bitterness. The pulp is white. Productivity 4-6 kg / m 2
- A very early hybrid eggplant Dutch breeding. The plant is powerful, productive. The fruit is dark purple weighing up to 1 kg, length 15-20 cm. It differs in early tying at low temperatures.
- Early ripening (112-118 days) grade. Productivity in film greenhouses is 5.5-8.5 kg / m. A plant of indeterminate type. Fruits are cylindrical and elongated pear-shaped, dark purple in color, glossy, weighing 215 g, spikes are weak.
- High-yielding grade eggplant. The plant is compact, medium-sized. Fruits are egg-shaped, dark purple in color, shiny, smooth. The pulp is dense, greenish-white, without bitterness. Productivity 4-5 kg / m.
- The plant is 150-180 cm high, semi-sprawling, medium-leafy, with regular and uniform fruit formation. The leaf is large, green prickly, with smooth edges. The mass of fruits is 238-350 g oval, 12-14 cm in length. Productivity 12.8-19.7 kg / m. Hybrid value: early ripeness, high productivity and marketability, excellent taste of products.
Leaf Salad Eggplant
- Heat-loving plant. Leaves are large, unrefined, suitable for food. Fruits of white color weighing about 150 g, before use in food it is recommended to soak in salt water.